All about Diabetes
Medically Diabetes is referred as Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes is a very common problem these days all over the world. Diabetes is caused when your body is not capable to produce enough Insulin which lowers Blood Glucose Or when your body cell’s does not respond to Insulin.
Early Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes
You might be eating fewer sweets, but it doesn’t mean you can’t be prone to Diabetes. Keep a check on these signs and symptoms
Thirst – If you feel like you are getting thirsty more often and drinking more water than always. It can be a symptom of Diabetes. In diabetes your body drains out more water from your blood and makes you dehydrated. Do visit a Doctor
Urination – Apart from drinking more water than usual, if you need to go to washroom every now and then, it could be another symptom of Diabetes you cannot ignore. Kidneys don’t work properly in diabetes hence draws more water than usual from blood, keeping your bladder full.
Losing Weight – Another sign of Diabetes is your weight loss. If you are not doing anything specific to lose weight and you are still losing weight. This sign is more evident in Type 1 as when body needs energy and can’t get it from Glucose, it starts breaking fats and Muscle tissues resulting is weight loss.
Weakness – Insulin helps in transiting glucose into energy, but when Insulin is not there our body lacks energy resulting in weakness.
Numbness or Tingling- High Glucose in bloodstream starts damaging nervous system resulting in tingling feeling and numbness in hands, legs and feet.
Few Other Signs & Symptoms – Blurred Vision, Dry & Itchy skin, Infection, cut and bruises take longer healing time, prone to Bladder infection, Skin infection and infection in vaginal area, Infection in feet, Hypertension, Hearing loss, Male Impotency and Heart problems .
How to Diagnose Diabetes
These symptoms are not adequate to proof that you are diabetic. You must go for thorough check up and Blood test to confirm Diabetes. Let’s see how Diabetes can be diagnosed
Diabetes can be diagnosed by Blood test after 8 hours of fasting. Blood sample is taken and sent to Path Lab for detailed analysis, or these days one can easily use Glucose meter to check Sugar level in blood.
The A1C Test
The test is performed to check Prediabetes and Diabetes. This test does not require any fasting. The report reflecting
>5.7% means the patient is normal
5.7% to 6.4% means the patient is at high risk of Diabetes (Prediabetes)
6.4%< means the patient have Diabetes
Fasting plasma Glucose Test (FPG)
>100 mg/dl means the patient is normal
100mg/dl to 125.99 mg/dl means patient is at high risk of Diabetes (predeiabetes)
126mg/dl< means the patient has Diabetes
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT )
>140mg/dl means Normal
140mg/dl to 199.9 mg/dl means patient is at high risk of Diabetes (predeiabetes)
200 mg/dl means patient has Diabetes
Once Diabetes is confirmed, your doctor will ask you for few more blood tests to check the Autoantibodies which are common in Type 1 Diabetes, so s/he can differentiate the type of diabetes you have.
Types of Diabetes
Once you have Diagnosed Diabetes, you must know the types of Diabetes. There are basically three types of Diabetes- Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes is less common, you would not find much patients of this type. Most of the patients of Type 1 diabetes develop the problem in early adulthood or teenage years. Type 1 diabetes is rare and makes life tougher for the patients. One needs to take Insulin injections everyday for rest of their lives. Regular blood test must be done to keep an eye on Sugar level in Bloodstream and adjust Insulin accordingly.
Type 1 patients need to keep a check on their food habits and should be very peculiar of what they are eating and when, they must avoid any kind of sugar/sweet at any time. They need regular exercise regime and need to keep a check on their sugar levels.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes is quite common these days all over the world. Either the body of patient does not produce enough Insulin or body cells don’t react to Insulin. The Type 2 Diabetes gradually gets worse and makes patients life tougher. There comes a stage when Type 2 diabetes people also end up having Insulin.
Type 1 diabetes patients need to keep a check on their food too, but they can once in a while have sweets. Some moderations in their diet plans can help them keep their sugar level in limit with proper medication. Regular exercise and proper sleep is very important.
This type of Diabetes affects pregnant women, hormonal changes during pregnancy can be the reason. Some pregnant women have high levels of glucose in blood stream during pregnancy, and the insulin produced by their body is insufficient control glucose levels. Gestational Diabetes can be diagnosed only during pregnancy. Undiagnosed or Untreated gestational Diabetes can result in complications during child birth and also hamper child growth.
Proper diet and exercise are enough to control Gestation Diabetes, But sometimes medication is also necessary.